Pacific Flyway Council
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Management Plan Abstracts

Canada Geese | Greater White-fronted Geese | Emperor Geese | Brant
Lesser Snow Geese | Ross' Geese | Trumpeter Swans | Tundra Swans
Sandhill Cranes | Band-tailed Pigeons | Doves | American White Pelicans
Double-crested Cormorants | Avian Influenza

Cackling Canada Geese
July 1999
The cackling Canada goose is the smallest subspecies of Canada geese and is unique to the Pacific Flyway. The birds nest in Alaska and typically winter in Oregon and Washington, with some flying as far south as California. Wildlife managers have been concerned about cackling geese for many years. Data indicate the cackling goose population has declined dramatically since the late 1960s, a likely result of spring subsistence hunting in Alaska and fall harvest, primarily in California. The Pacific Flyway, Alaska Natives, and other groups have developed harvest guidelines to help increase the cackling goose population.

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Cackling Canada Geese
PDF (590 KB)

Dusky Canada Geese
March 2008
Dusky Canada geese nest in Alaska and winter from southern British Columbia to California. Data indicate that during the past 50 years dusky geese increased in numbers and then decreased, primarily due to poor recruitment of young into the population and increased predation by eagles, coyotes, brown bears, and other mammalian predators. Management of dusky geese on their wintering grounds is complicated by the concurrent use by other Canada goose subspecies. The mixing of Canada geese subspecies causes difficulty in conducting winter counts, designing harvest regulations, controlling crop depredation, and assessing carrying capacity of winter habitat.

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Dusky Canada Geese
PDF (918 KB)

Vancouver Canada Geese
September 1979 (draft)
Vancouver Canada geese reside in southeast Alaska and on the islands of British Columbia. They largely occupy wilderness habitat year round, providing the subspecies with natural protection from hunting pressure. A potential threat to the population could be clear-cut logging of their habitat. Data indicate Vancouver Canada geese donít usually migrate. Wildlife managers are gathering more information about this subspecies.

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Vancouver Canada Geese
PDF (986 KB)

Aleutian Canada Geese
July 2006
Once listed as endangered under the Endangered Species Act, the Aleutian Canada goose has increased in both numbers and breeding distribution. The subspecies was once threatened by the introduction of Arctic and red foxes to its nesting islands off the coast of Alaska and Asia. Management efforts such as the elimination of foxes from some of the islands and translocation of wild geese to areas where bald eagles arenít a threat have helped restore the Aleutian Canada goose population. The subspecies winters in Japan and from British Columbia to northern Mexico. The geese resemble other small Canada goose subspecies such as the cackling Canada goose and Tavernerís Canada goose.

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Aleutian Canada Geese
PDF (982 KB)

Pacific Population of Lesser and Taverner's Canada Geese
July 1994 (draft)
The Pacific population of lesser and Tavernerís Canada geese nests in Alaska and northwestern Canada and winter primarily in Washington, Oregon, and California. Data indicate the lesser Canada goose population has increased dramatically in some areas. Management of these two subspecies is complicated by poorly delineated ranges, a lack of breeding population estimates, poorly understood migration patterns, and mixing with other subspecies on wintering areas.

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Pacific Population of Lesser Canada Geese (Tavernerís and Lesser)
PDF (330 KB)

Pacific Population of Western Canada Geese
July 2000
The Pacific population of western Canada geese winter almost exclusively in the Pacific Flyway. They nest in central and southern British Columbia, northwestern Alberta, northern and southwestern Idaho, western Montana, northwestern Nevada, northern California, and throughout Washington and Oregon. A large portion of the population is nonmigratory, although some groups do make annual migrations between established breeding and wintering areas. Through numerous management programs, such as artificial nesting structures and transplant projects, Pacific population of western Canada geese have expanded their historic distribution significantly.

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Pacific Population of Western Canada Geese
PDF (254 KB)

Rocky Mountain Population of Western Canada Geese
July 2001
The Rocky Mountain population of western Canada geese winter almost exclusively in the Pacific Flyway. They nest from central Nevada to western Colorado, and from at least as far north as central Alberta, and south to east-central Arizona and northwestern New Mexico. The population is highly migratory, although a growing number of birds do not make annual migrations. Survey data indicates the population has increased dramatically and may have shifted its wintering area from central and southern California, western Arizona, and southern Nevada to more easterly states like New Mexico.

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Rocky Mountain Population of Western Canada Geese
PDF (320 KB)

Figure 2
PDF (733 KB)

Canada Goose Agricultural Depredation Control in Oregon and Washington
March 1998
Seven subspecies of Canada geese are found in the in the Willamette Valley and Lower Columbia River areas during fall and winter. These geese depredate agricultural crops. Managers are striving to achieve a balance between viable populations of all subspecies without negatively impacting agricultural interests. Some subspecies are below population objectives while others are above objectives resulting in a complex management problem. The 9-point plan addresses agricultural depredation problems associated with these wintering Canada geese.

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Canada Goose Agricultural Depredation Control in Oregon and Washington
PDF (653 KB)

Pacific Population of Greater White-fronted Geese
July 2003
The Pacific population of greater white-fronted geese is one of two subspecies of greater white-fronted geese that breed in Alaska and winter primarily in California. The two are differentiated by size and color. The Pacific Flyway population is the smaller and lighter subspecies. The planís goal is to maintain a population of 300,000 geese.

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Pacific Population of Greater White-fronted Geese
PDF (624 KB)

Tule Greater White-fronted Geese
July 1991
The Tule greater white-fronted goose is one of two subspecies of greater white-fronted geese that breed in Alaska and winter primarily in California. The two are differentiated by size and color. The Tule is the larger and darker subspecies. The planís goal is to identify population distribution and abundance of Tule greater white-fronted geese and maintain a population of about 10,000 birds.

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Tule Greater White-fronted Goose
PDF (932 KB)

Emperor Geese
July 2006
Emperor geese are maritime birds that winter primarily along the Alaska Peninsula and in the Aleutian Islands and nest along the west coast of Alaska and east coast of Russia in arctic tundra habitats. Survey results show that the population has declined from about 139,000 birds in 1964. Breeding success remained constant during the decline, suggesting that increased mortality may be a primary factor in the population decrease. Managers closed the emperor goose hunting season in 1986 and subsistence hunting was closed in 1987, although there continues to be some take. The planís goal is to restore the emperor goose population to historical levels.

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Emperor Geese
PDF (810 KB)

Pacific Population of Brant
July 2002 (Technical Revision July 2004)
The Pacific population of brant nests in Alaska, the western Canadian arctic, and the eastern Russian arctic, and winters primarily along the Pacific Coast from Alaska to Mexico. Brant are of special interest to the public because of their relative rarity and ecological specialization.

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Pacific Population of Brant
PDF (1,054 KB)

Wrangel Island Population of Lesser Snow Geese
July 2006
The Wrangel Island population of lesser snow geese breed on Wrangel Island, Russia and winter primarily in British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California. This population represents the last major snow goose population breeding in Asia, and the primary Russian goose population that winters in North America. Another population of lesser snow geese that breeds primarily from Banks Island, Northwest Territory to the North Slope of Alaska is treated in the Management Plan for the Western Arctic Population of Lesser Snow Geese. The goal of the plan is to maintain and enhance this population and its habitats, as well as educational, scientific, aesthetic, and harvest values of this resource.

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Wrangel Island Population of Lesser Snow Geese
PDF (608 KB)

Western Canadian Arctic Population of Lesser Snow Geese
July 2013
This plan provides guidelines for management of lesser snow geese from the Western Arctic Population (WAP) that occur in the Pacific Flyway. The WAP breeds primarily on Banks Island in the western Canadian arctic, with smaller colonies along the Anderson and McKenzie River Deltas in Canada and on the arctic coastal plain in northern Alaska. The majority of the population winters in the Central Valley of California, with some wintering in the western part of the Central Flyway. The WAP mixes in migration and wintering areas with the Wrangel Island and Mid-continent populations of lesser snow geese and Ross's geese. One of the management objectives is to reduce the WAP to 200,000 adult geese in traditional breeding areas.

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Western Canadian Arctic Population of Lesser Snow Geese
PDF (750 KB)

Rossí Geese
July 1992
The Rossí goose, one of the smallest of all North American geese, is endemic to North America. The geese breed in Arctic Canada and winter in the Central and Pacific flyways. Rossí geese existence was once considered precarious; however, their numbers grew to in excess of 200,000 birds from 1949 to 1988. Managers would like to maintain or increase the birdsí numbers and influence distribution of this unique species.

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Rossí Geese
PDF (1,467 KB)

Pacific Coast Population of Trumpeter Swans
March 2008
Trumpeter swans in North America are divided into three populations for management purposes and include the Pacific Coast, Rocky Mountain, and Interior populations. This plan addresses only the Pacific Population. Trumpeter swans nest primarily in Alaska, and less commonly in the Yukon Territory and northwest British Columbia. They were once distributed across the continent from the Atlantic to the Pacific and were well known to early explorers. Human exploitation removed trumpeter swans from a significant portion of their original range. Trumpeter swans have shown consistent increases since comprehensive breeding grounds surveys were begun in 1968. An exhaustive census in 2005 of the Alaska nesting grounds revealed 23,692 swans. An additional 1,236 swans were estimated from aerial surveys in Yukon Territory and British Columbia. The current population goal is 25,000 swans.

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Pacific Coast Population of Trumpeter Swans
PDF (1,379 KB)

Rocky Mountain Population of Trumpeter Swans
July 2012
The Rocky Mountain population of trumpeter swans nests primarily in southeast Idaho, southwest Montana, and northwest Wyoming. Through habitat conservation, protection, and supplemental winter feeding, trumpeter swans increased from less than 200 birds in the early 1930s to nearly 3,000 birds in 1996. However, swansí continued growth and security is at risk if the birds continue to attempt to winter in inadequate habitat where vegetation doesnít support the number of birds there. The management goal is to restore the Rocky Mountain population to a primarily migratory group sustained by naturally occurring and agricultural food resources in diverse breeding and wintering sites.

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Rocky Mountain Population of Trumpeter Swans
PDF (4,567 KB)

Western Population of Tundra Swans
July 2001
Two populations of tundra swans use habitat in the Pacific Flyway and are delineated by regional distributions. The western population of tundra swans nests in western and northwestern Alaska and winters in the Western United States and coastal British Columbia. The number of tundra swans in the western population has been increasing since the 1950s. Managers intend to maintain a western population of at least 60,000 swans.

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Western Population of Tundra Swans
PDF (1,067 KB)

Eastern Population of Tundra Swans
July 2007
Eastern Population of Tundra Swans Two populations of tundra swans use habitat in the Pacific Flyway and are delineated by regional distributions. The eastern population of tundra swans nests from northern Alaska across the Canadian arctic and winters on the Atlantic coast. Historically, eastern population swans have been more numerous than the western population, and this population increased significantly in the mid 1970s. The eastern population currently is estimated at about 90,000 birds. Managers intend to maintain the population of at least 80,000 swans.

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Eastern Population of Tundra Swans
PDF (1,361 KB)

Pacific Coast Population of Sandhill Cranes
March 1983
The Pacific Coast population of sandhill cranes includes primarily the smallest race (lesser) of sandhill cranes. The population nests in southwestern and south-central Alaska and winters in California. The plan objective is to maintain the wintering population in California at the mid-1980s level of 20,000 to 25,000 birds and to maintain habitat to support that population. These birds have benefited from measures taken to manage migratory birds in general; however, their management is complicated because the relationships between the birdsí breeding areas, migration routes, and wintering areas are poorly defined.

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Pacific Coast Population of Sandhill Cranes
PDF (265 KB)

Central Valley Population of Sandhill Cranes
July 1997
The Pacific Flyway Council manages three populations of the largest race (greater) of sandhill cranes. The Central Valley population is the westernmost population, wintering in the Central Valley and breeding in British Columbia and Washington, Oregon, Nevada, and California. A decline in the population resulted in it being classified as a sensitive species in 1982. The Central Valley birds numbered between 6,000 and 6,800 in 1990. The plan objectives call for increasing the population to a minimum of 7,500 cranes and increasing and protecting habitat. Problems confronting cranes are predation of young birds, habitat loss, and mortality from illegal shooting and accidental collisions with power lines.

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Central Valley Population of Sandhill Cranes
PDF (1,027 KB)

Lower Colorado River Valley Population of Sandhill Cranes
March 1995
The Pacific Flyway Council manages three populations of the largest race (greater) of sandhill cranes. The Lower Colorado River Valley population is probably the least numerous with 1,800 to 2,000 birds. In recent years the population has had one of the lowest recruitment rates of any sandhill crane population in North America. The birds winter along the lower Colorado and Gila Rivers in Arizona, the Imperial Valley, California, and in Baja California Norte and Sonora, Mexico. They nest in northeast Nevada. Problems identified for the Lower Colorado River Valley population are difficulty monitoring the birds and a loss of habitat.

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Lower Colorado River Valley Population of Sandhill Cranes
PDF (181 KB)

Rocky Mountain Population of Sandhill Cranes
March 2007
The Pacific Flyway Council manages three populations of the largest race (greater) of sandhill cranes. The Rocky Mountain population is the second largest with more than 18,000 birds. The population grew from about 500 birds in the mid-1940s. The birds breed from west-central Montana south and west through central and eastern Idaho, western and central Wyoming, and central Utah to northwestern Colorado. The major migration staging area is San Luis Valley, Colorado (where the birds spend three to four months) and the principal wintering area is the Middle Rio Grande Valley, New Mexico.

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Rocky Mountain Population of Sandhill Cranes
PDF (624 KB)

Midcontinent Population of Sandhill Cranes
March 2006
The range of the mid-continent population is extensive including primarily most of the mid portion of North America. These birds migrate between breeding and wintering areas during late February to early April, the majority of which stage on the central Platte Valley of Nebraska during migration. The population has generally increased since the early 1980s. The population goal is within a range of 367,000-497,000 birds.

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Midcontinent Population of Sandhill Cranes
PDF (1,485 KB)

Pacific Coast Band-tailed Pigeons
July 2010
Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons range from British Columbia, Canada through the West Coast states and into northern Baja California. Estimates place the population at more than two million birds. Pigeons prefer forested, mountainous terrain for breeding. Although migratory, the Pacific Coast pigeon breeds throughout its range, exhibiting more of a nomadic movement than a true migration. Several factors make management of band-tailed pigeons difficult, including the birdsí tendencies to scatter throughout forested habitat. And although banding data demonstrate high survival capacity, evidence suggests their reproductive potential is low for a game bird.

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Pacific Coast Band-tailed Pigeons
PDF (359 KB)

Interior Band-tailed Pigeons
March 2001
Interior band-tailed pigeons are located primarily in the Rocky Mountains south of Wyoming. Management of these birds is especially challenging. Scientists haven't been able to reliably estimate population size because of the difficulty in locating and observing pigeons. Although data indicate that band-tailed pigeons have high survival capacity, their reproductive potential is low for game birds. High mortality resulting from disease, hunting, and other factors could have long-lasting effects on the population.

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Interior Band-tailed Pigeons
PDF (381 KB)

Western Management Unit Population of Mourning Doves
March 1992
The breeding range of the Western Management Unit population of mourning doves extends from British Columbia and the prairie provinces of Canada to central Mexico and from Nebraska and Kansas to the West Coast. Population data suggest that western mourning dove numbers have been declining since 1966. Researchers have identified several factors that contribute to or call population data into question. Those include quality of the annual call-count survey, decreasing hunting trends, development and changing agricultural practices, disease, and a lack of information about dove productivity. Managers recommend evaluating survey techniques, inventorying dove habitat, and collecting band data, among others. See also the Mourning Dove National Strategic Harvest Management Plan.

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Mourning Dove National Strategic Harvest Management Plan
PDF (3,466 KB)

Western White-winged Doves
March 2004
The breeding range of the western white-winged dove extends from southeastern Nevada and southeastern California through most of southern Arizona into southwestern New Mexico and Baja California and Sonora in Mexico. Not all states that permit white-winged dove hunting seasons collect population or harvest data specific to white wings. Arizona surveys suggests that possibly the population has declined since 1968 when these birds were most abundant. The abundance of birds in the 1960í may have been due the availability of abundant unnatural foods in association with agricultural practices. The plan objectives call for implementation of reliable population and harvest surveys and determination of any factors that may adversely affect the white-winged dove population.

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Western White-winged Doves
PDF (481 KB)

American White Pelicans
Management Plan, July 2012
This plan provides a framework for Pacific Flyway wildlife agencies to follow when addressing fish depredation issues involving American white pelicans. Information concerning biology, status, resources conflicts, management options, regulatory requirements, and recommended management strategies is included. This plan outlines measures to sustain viable populations, reduce local fisheries conflicts, and do both within a more unified Flyway context. The planís goal is to maintain American white pelicans as a natural part of the waterbird biodiversity of the Pacific Flyway, while minimizing substantial negative ecological, economic, and social impacts.

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American White Pelican Management Plan
PDF (1,366 KB)

Monitoring Strategy, March 2013
The goal of the Pacific Flyway American White Pelican monitoring strategy is to establish a coordinated, long-term monitoring effort to estimate the breeding population size, trend, and distribution of the Western Population of pelicans. This document describes the scope, objectives, sampling approach, monitoring techniques, and budget of the monitoring strategy. Collected information will be used to develop management recommendations, and to guide and assess management actions pertaining to pelican depredation on fish resources.

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American White Pelican Monitoring Strategy
PDF (409 KB)

Double-crested Cormorants
Management Plan, July 2012
This plan provides a framework for Pacific Flyway wildlife agencies to follow when addressing fish depredation issues involving double-crested cormorants. Information concerning biology, status, resources conflicts, management options, regulatory requirements, and recommended management strategies is included. This plan outlines measures to sustain viable populations, reduce local fisheries conflicts, and do both within a more unified Flyway context. The planís goal is to maintain double-crested cormorants as a natural part of the waterbird biodiversity of the Pacific Flyway, while minimizing substantial negative ecological, economic, and social impacts.

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Double-crested Cormorant Management Plan
PDF (1,250 KB)

Monitoring Strategy, March 2013
The goal of the Pacific Flyway Double-crested Cormorant monitoring strategy is to establish a coordinated, long-term monitoring effort to estimate the breeding population size, trend, and distribution of the Western Population of cormorants. This document describes the scope, objectives, sampling approach, monitoring techniques, and budget of the monitoring strategy. Collected information will be used to develop management recommendations, and to guide and assess management actions pertaining to cormorant depredation on fish resources.

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Double-crested Cormorant Monitoring Strategy
PDF (584 KB)

Avian Influenza
March 2006
The plan goal is to provide guidance to Pacific Flyway wildlife agencies in planning and implementing surveillance to detect Asian H5N1 in wild migratory birds. This document is intended as a step-down approach from the draft U.S. Interagency Strategic Plan to articulate flyway-level objectives, recommend surveillance strategies, and support further planning in each state to assess available and needed agency resources. The goal of the national strategy and this Pacific Flyway strategy is early detection of Asian H5N1 in wild migratory birds-not to assess its prevalence over time, monitor its rate of movement, or investigate the ecology of the disease.

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Avian Influenza Surveilance
PDF (804 KB)

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